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91
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 08:17:51 AM »
There are no such customs in the game. Most likely because of political correctness.

1) The customs of the ancient Chinese are remarkably similar to the customs of the steppe people.

Around the Xiaotong found several burial grounds of Shan time. Of particular interest are the tombs of representatives of the ruling Shan family, unearthed near Sibegan. A huge number of weapons, ritual utensils, ornaments were found here both in the central burial chambers, reaching a depth of 12-13 m, and in the surrounding special ditches and pits. The latter were intended for the burial of chariots and horses, as well as for the numerous servants and soldiers accompanying the Shan ruler to the afterlife. According to one of the participants in the excavation in Sibaygan, the total number of dead and buried soldiers here reached 1,000 people. In addition, around the 10 royal tombs, many individual burials containing rich sets of funeral implements were discovered. According to archaeologists, these graves belonged to those dignitaries from the closest circle of Shan Vans, who were in the posthumous retinue of their overlords. In the pits were buried the remains of sacrificed slaves. In some cases, only heads, in others - decapitated bodies.

2) Ritual cannibalism also resembles the custom of eating human flesh in the steppe peoples. Human fat was also consumed as fuel in the siege of cities at a later time, in the Middle Ages
92
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 07:23:22 AM »
Pazyryk Princess

Pazyryk Princess. VI century BC. Tattoos on it are made in the Scythian animal style. She, too, is from the Europoid race

93
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 07:18:06 AM »
These are later mummies (1000 years younger than Tarim) from the Pazyryk mound in the Altai. It could be either Yuezhi or Dinlin



94
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 06:44:38 AM »
Barbarians, western and northern neighbors of China, were еuropean blondes and introduced the Chinese to the technologies: bronze, chariot, honey. They were jiangs and tochars. How did the Chinese defend themselves? Like the Indians from Alexander the Great, they defended themselves sitting on an elephant? If they were Indo-Europeans, then their religion is known. They were with Hindu faith

Tarim mummies

The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1800 BCE to the first centuries BCE. The mummies, particularly the early ones, are frequently associated with the presence of the Indo-European Tocharian languages in the Tarim Basin, although the evidence is not totally conclusive and many centuries separate these mummies from the first attestation of the Tocharian languages in writing. Victor H. Mair's team concluded that the mummies are Caucasoid, likely speakers of Indo-European languages such as the Tocharians.

Archaeological record

Sir Aurel Stein in the Tarim Basin, 1910
At the beginning of the 20th century, European explorers such as Sven Hedin, Albert von Le Coq and Sir Aurel Stein all recounted their discoveries of desiccated bodies in their search for antiquities in Central Asia. Since then, numerous other mummies have been found and analysed, many of them now displayed in the museums of Xinjiang. Most of these mummies were found on the eastern end of the Tarim Basin (around the area of Lopnur, Subeshi near Turpan, Kroran, Kumul), or along the southern edge of the Tarim Basin (Khotan, Niya, and Cherchen or Qiemo).

The earliest Tarim mummies, found at Qäwrighul and dated to 1800 BCE, are of a Caucasian physical type whose closest affiliation is to the Bronze Age populations of southern Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, and the Lower Volga.

The cemetery at Yanbulaq contained 29 mummies which date from 1100–500 BCE, 21 of which are Mongoloid—the earliest Mongoloid mummies found in the Tarim Basin—and eight of which are of the same Caucasian physical type found at Qäwrighul.

Notable mummies are the tall, red-haired "Chärchän man" or the "Ur-David" (1000 BCE); his son (1000 BCE), a small 1-year-old baby with brown hair protruding from under a red and blue felt cap, with two stones positioned over its eyes; the "Hami Mummy" (c. 1400–800 BCE), a "red-headed beauty" found in Qizilchoqa; and the "Witches of Subeshi" (4th or 3rd century BCE), who wore 2-foot-long (0.61 m) black felt conical hats with a flat brim. Also found at Subeshi was a man with traces of a surgical operation on his abdomen; the incision is sewn up with sutures made of horsehair.


The Taklamakan Desert is very dry, which helped considerably in the preservation of the mummies.
Many of the mummies have been found in very good condition, owing to the dryness of the desert and the desiccation it produced in the corpses. The mummies share many typical Caucasian body features (elongated bodies, angular faces, recessed eyes), and many of them have their hair physically intact, ranging in color from blond to red to deep brown, and generally long, curly and braided. Their costumes, and especially textiles, may indicate a common origin with Indo-European neolithic clothing techniques or a common low-level textile technology. Chärchän man wore a red twill tunic and tartan leggings. Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber, who examined the tartan-style cloth, discusses similarities between it and fragments recovered from salt mines associated with the Hallstatt culture.[8] As a result of the arid conditions and exceptional preservation, tattoos have been identified on mummies from several sites around the Tarim Basin, including Qäwrighul, Yanghai, Shengjindian, Shanpula, Zaghunluq, and Qizilchoqa.

Genetic links


Caucasoid mask from Lop Nur, China, 2000–1000 BCE
A 2008 study by Jilin University showed that the Yuansha population has relatively close relationships with the modern populations of South Central Asia and Indus Valley, as well as with the ancient population of Chawuhu.

In 2007 the Chinese government allowed a National Geographic Society team headed by Spencer Wells to examine the mummies' DNA. Wells was able to extract undegraded DNA from the internal tissues. The scientists extracted enough material to suggest the Tarim Basin was continually inhabited from 2000 BCE to 300 BCE and preliminary results indicate the people, rather than having a single origin, originated from Europe, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley and other regions yet to be determined.[citation needed]

Between 2009-2015, the remains of 92 individuals found at the Xiaohe Tomb complex were analyzed for Y-DNA and mtDNA markers.

Genetic analyses of the mummies showed that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East. The maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both East Asia and West Eurasia, whereas the paternal lineages all originated from West Eurasia.

Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that maternal lineages carried by the people at Xiaohe included mtDNA haplogroups H, K, U5, U7, U2e, T and R*, which are now most common in West Eurasia. Also found were haplogroups common in modern populations from East Asia: B5, D and G2a. Haplogroups now common in Central Asian or Siberian populations included: C4 and C5. Haplogroups later regarded as typically South Asian includedM5 and M*.

The paternal lines of male remains surveyed nearly all – 11 out of 12, or around 92% – belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup R1a1, which are now most common in West Eurasia; the other belonged to the exceptionally rare paragroup K* (M9).

The geographic location of this admixing is unknown, although south Siberia is likely.

It has been asserted that the textiles found with the mummies are of an early European textile type based on close similarities to fragmentary textiles found in salt mines in Austria, dating from the second millennium BCE. Anthropologist Irene Good, a specialist in early Eurasian textiles, noted the woven diagonal twill pattern indicated the use of a rather sophisticated loom and said that the textile is "the easternmost known example of this kind of weaving technique."

Mair claims that "the earliest mummies in the Tarim Basin were exclusively Caucasoid, or Europoid" with east Asian migrants arriving in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin around 3,000 years ago while the Uyghur peoples arrived around the year 842. In trying to trace the origins of these populations, Victor Mair's team suggested that they may have arrived in the region by way of the Pamir Mountains about 5,000 years ago.

Mair has claimed that:

The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair. Scholars have traditionally scoffed at these accounts, but it now seems that they may be accurate.

Chinese historian Ji Xianlin says China "supported and admired" research by foreign experts into the mummies. "However, within China a small group of ethnic separatists have taken advantage of this opportunity to stir up trouble and are acting like buffoons. Some of them have even styled themselves the descendants of these ancient 'white people' with the aim of dividing the motherland. But these perverse acts will not succeed". Barber addresses these claims by noting that "The Loulan Beauty is scarcely closer to 'Turkic' in her anthropological type than she is to Han Chinese. The body and facial forms associated with Turks and Mongols began to appear in the Tarim cemeteries only in the first millennium BCE, fifteen hundred years after this woman lived. Due to the "fear of fuelling separatist currents", the Xinjiang museum, regardless of dating, displays all their mummies, both Tarim and Han, together.

Posited origins

Physical anthropologists propose the movement of at least two Caucasian physical types into the Tarim Basin. Mallory and Mair associate these types with the Tocharian and Iranian (Saka) branches of the Indo-European language family, respectively. However, archaeology and linguistics professor Elizabeth Wayland Barber cautions against assuming the mummies spoke Tocharian, noting a gap of about a thousand years between the mummies and the documented Tocharians: "people can change their language at will, without altering a single gene or freckle."

B. E. Hemphill's biodistance analysis of cranial metrics (as cited in Larsen 2002 and Schurr 2001) has questioned the identification of the Tarim Basin population as European, noting that the earlier population has close affinities to the Indus Valley population, and the later population with the Oxus River valley population. Because craniometry can produce results which make no sense at all (e.g. the close relationship between Neolithic populations in Ukraine and Portugal) and therefore lack any historical meaning, any putative genetic relationship must be consistent with geographical plausibility and have the support of other evidence.

Han Kangxin, who examined the skulls of 302 mummies, found the closest relatives of the earlier Tarim Basin population in the populations of the Afanasevo culture situated immediately north of the Tarim Basin and the Andronovo culture that spanned Kazakhstan and reached southwards into West Central Asia and the Altai.


Map of Eurasia showing the location of the Xiaohe cemetery, the Tarim Basin and the areas occupied by cultures associated with the settlement of the Tarim Basin.

It is the Afanasevo culture to which Mallory & Mair (2000:294–296, 314–318) trace the earliest Bronze Age settlers of the Tarim and Turpan basins. The Afanasevo culture (c. 3500–2500 BCE) displays cultural and genetic connections with the Indo-European-associated cultures of the Eurasian Steppe yet predates the specifically Indo-Iranian-associated Andronovo culture (c. 2000–900 BCE) enough to isolate the Tocharian languages from Indo-Iranian linguistic innovations like satemization.

Hemphill & Mallory (2004) confirm a second Caucasian physical type at Alwighul (700–1 BCE) and Krorän (200 CE) different from the earlier one found at Qäwrighul (1800 BCE) and Yanbulaq (1100–500 BCE):

This study confirms the assertion of Han [1998] that the occupants of Alwighul and Krorän are not derived from proto-European steppe populations, but share closest affinities with Eastern Mediterranean populations. Further, the results demonstrate that such Eastern Mediterraneans may also be found at the urban centers of the Oxus civilization located in the north Bactrian oasis to the west. Affinities are especially close between Krorän, the latest of the Xinjiang samples, and Sapalli, the earliest of the Bactrian samples, while Alwighul and later samples from Bactria exhibit more distant phenetic affinities. This pattern may reflect a possible major shift in interregional contacts in Central Asia in the early centuries of the second millennium BCE.

Mallory and Mair associate this later (700 BCE–200 CE) Caucasian physical type with the populations who introduced the Iranian Saka language to the western part of the Tarim basin.

Mair concluded:

From the evidence available, we have found that during the first 1,000 years after the Loulan Beauty, the only settlers in the Tarim Basin were Caucasoid. East Asian peoples only began showing up in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin about 3,000 years ago, Mair said, while the Uighur peoples arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uighur Kingdom, largely based in modern day Mongolia, around the year 842.

Historical records and associated texts
Chinese sources
Main article: Western Regions
Western Regions (Hsi-yu; Chinese: 西域; pinyin: Xīyù; Wade–Giles: Hsi1-yü4) is the historical name in China, between the 3rd century BCE and 8th century CE for regions west of Yumen Pass, including the Tarim and Central Asia.

Some of the peoples of the Western Regions were described in Chinese sources as having full beards, red or blond hair, deep-set blue or green eyes and high noses. According to Chinese sources, the city states of the Tarim reached the height of their political power during the 3rd to 4th centuries CE,[24] although this may actually indicate an increase in Chinese involvement in the Tarim, following the collapse of the Kushan Empire.

The Yuezhi
Main article: Yuezhi
Reference to the Yuezhi name in Guanzi was made around 7th century BCE by the Chinese economist Guan Zhong, though the book is generally considered to be a forgery of later generations.:115–127 The attributed author, Guan Zhong, described the Yuzhi 禺氏, or Niuzhi 牛氏, as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains of Yuzhi 禺氏 at Gansu.

After the Yuezhi experienced a series of major defeats at the hands of the Xiongnu, during the 2nd century BCE, a group known as the Greater Yuezhi migrated to Bactria, where they established the Kushan Empire. By the 1st Century CE, the Kushan Empire had expanded significantly and may have annexed part of the Tarim Basin.

Roman accounts
Main article: Sino-Roman relations
The peoples of China were known in Ancient Rome as Seres. It is possible that the Seres were a conflation of many different East and Central Asian cultures, including the peoples of the Tarim.

In the 1st Century CE, Pliny the Elder mentioned and encounter between Romans and Seres at Taprobane (Sri Lanka).[26] According to Pliny, these Seres "exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes, and made an uncouth sort of noise by way of talking". However it is unlikely that this passage has anything to do with the population of the Tarim Basin.[why?]

Tocharian languages
Main article: Tocharian languages

Wooden tablet with an inscription showing Tocharian B in its Brahmic form. Kucha, China, 5th-8th century (Tokyo National Museum)
The degree of differentiation between the language known to modern scholars as Tocharian A (or by the endonym Ārśi-käntwa; "tongue of Ārśi") and Tocharian B (Kuśiññe; [adjective] "of Kucha, Kuchean]]"), as well as the less-well attested Tocharian C (which is associated with the city-state of Krorän, also known as Loulan), and the absence of evidence for these beyond the Tarim, tends to indicate that a common, proto-Tocharian language existed in the Tarim during the second half of the 1st Millennium BCE. Tocharian is attested in documents between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, although the first known epigraphic evidence dates to the 6th century CE.

Although the Tarim mummies preceded the Tocharian texts by several centuries, their shared geographical location and links to Western Eurasia have led many scholars to infer that the mummies were related to the Tocharian peoples.

Arguments for the occurrence of cultural transmission from West to East
The possible presence of speakers of Indo-European languages in the Tarim Basin by about 2000 BCE could, if confirmed, be interpreted as evidence that cultural exchanges occurred among Indo-European and Chinese populations at a very early date. It has been suggested that such activities as chariot warfare and bronze-making may have been transmitted to the east by these Indo-European nomads. Mallory and Mair also note that: "Prior to c. 2000 BC, finds of metal artifacts in China are exceedingly few, simple and, puzzlingly, already made of alloyed copper (and hence questionable)." While stressing that the argument as to whether bronze technology travelled from China to the West or that "the earliest bronze technology in China was stimulated by contacts with western steppe cultures", is far from settled in scholarly circles, they do suggest that the evidence to date favours the latter scenario.[28] However the culture and technology in the northwest region of Tarim basin was less advanced than that in the East China of Yellow River-Erlitou (2070 BCE ~ 1600 BCE) or Majiayao culture (3100 BCE ~ 2600 BCE), which are earliest bronze-using cultures in China, implies that the northwest region did not use copper or any metal until bronze technology was introduced to this region by the Shang Dynasty about 1600 BC. The earliest bronze artifacts in China are found at the Majiayao culture site (dating from between 3100 and 2700 BC), and it is from this location and time period that Chinese Bronze Age spread. Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (Wade–Giles: Erh-li-t'ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty. Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (Wade–Giles: Hsia) dynasty.The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule.Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture. Since this was significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported rather than discovered independently in China. However, there is reason to believe that bronzework did develop inside China separately from outside influence.

The Chinese official Zhang Qian, who visited Bactria and Sogdiana in 126 BCE, made the first known Chinese report on many regions to the west of China. He believed he discerned Greek influences in some of these kingdoms. He names Parthia "Ānxī" (Chinese: 安息), a transcription of "Arshak" (Arsaces), the name of the founder of Parthian dynasty.[36] Zhang Qian clearly identifies Parthia as an advanced urban civilization that farmed grain and grapes, and manufactured silver coins and leather goods. Zhang Qian equated Parthia's level of advancement to the cultures of Dayuan in Ferghana and Daxia in Bactria.

The supplying of Tarim Basin jade to China from ancient times is well established, according to Liu (2001): "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty by Zheng Zhenxiang, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BCE the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China."
95
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 05:58:38 AM »
The river Uzboy (Turkmenistan), along which the ships sailed along the Great Indian Road, is not navigable now

96
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 05:56:55 AM »
Great Indian Road

In historical science and among the general public is well known The Great Silk Road, which in ancient times united the countries of the Far East with states of the Mediterranean through Central Asia. Significantly less due to another great trade route is known - from India to the countries of the Mediterranean again through Central Asia. Unlike the Great Silk Road, the main which routes passed either by land or by sea, this route was a combination of - one part of it passed overland, the other - along the rivers, the third - on the seas. It started, most likely, in the capital of Gandhara - Taxil (north-west India), then through the passes of the Hindu Kush went to Bactria and on pp. Kunduzdarya and Balkhab led to the valley of Oks (Amudarya).
The other most important part of this road was from Gandhara through Kabuldarya, then its right tributary, p. Kunar, led to Chitral and Badakhshan, and then along the river. Kokcha through Ai-Khanum to Oaks. Both parts of this path were connected in Kelife, from where the road again branched out. One of its branches along the Oxia waterway led to Khorezm then through Sarakamish through Uzboi to the Caspian Sea. The other was from Oaks on the Kelif Uzboy, flowing into the Uzba near the fortress of Iggy-kala, and then also brought Uzboi to the Caspian Sea. The branch of this road from Margiana Through Partheni went to Dakhistan and Hyrcania, to the valleys of Atrek and Gorgan and also led to the Caspian Sea.
Having overcome the Caspian Sea, this route came to the mouth of the river. Chickens. Then walked along the Kure river through modern Azerbaijan (Caucasian Albania) and Eastern Georgia (ancient Iberia) and through the Suram Pass led to the valley of the river Rioni (ancient Fasis), where ships, according to Strabo, were dragged by drag. In the low-Fasisa (Western Georgia, the legendary Colchis), according to Pseudo-Skimna, was the eponymous city, where people lived sixty nationalities, including Bactrians and Indians (Ps.-Scymn, Ad Nicomedem regem, 934 [F 20]). It is possible that from here the Black and Mediterranean seas in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, in which, according to Dion Chrysostom, A colony of Bactrian merchants (Dio Chrysost. XXXII [Ad Alexandrines], 40). From Fasis through Pontus Euxine this way led to the Greek cities of the Northern The Black Sea and South-Eastern Europe.
The uniform name for the given continental way till now was not suggested. Scientists involved in its study, called only a few of it parts - the Oxo-Caspian trade route (V.V. Tarn), the Caspian waterway (A.S. Balakhvantsev), just a trade route (R.R. Mukasheva), the path of Strabo or trade route from India to Rome (D. Galleri), the Bactrian-Caucasian path (B. Ya. Sta-
viscous), the way from India to Pontus (K. Rapin), which does not reflect the essence of this path, its meaning and the vast space that he held.
Unlike the Great Silk Road, a description of which is always given in Greco-Roman sources in the direction from west to east (as, to measure, in the interne of Maes Tizian), this path in the same sources is described by Only from the east (from India) to the west. They also talk about delivery on this path of exclusively Indian goods. Given these facts and the huge distance he held, I propose the name "Great Indian road".
There is reason to believe that this path followed in ancient times from Gandhara not only to the west, but also to the east, to Southern China. The basis for this is the information of Zhang-Jian, who, staying in Bactria (between 139-129 BC) saw there bamboo sticks from Qiong and canvases from Shu. Residents of Dakhya (Bactria) told him that these items were purchased by their merchants who went to trade in Shenda, located next to Shu, and in Dahya it was more convenient to go straight from Shu, and from this region the merchants secretly left for the West.
According to modern research, the Shu and Qiong areas correspond to the Sichuan province in southern China, and Shendu covers Northeast India, Burma and the Yunnan area in southern China at the border with Vietnam.
Thus, even before the Great Silk Road Between Bactria and South China there was a road through which Bactrian and Chinese merchants traded their goods. This road, apparently, came from Bactria through Gandhara and Kashmir, and then through the valleys of Jamna and the Ganges through Burma it emerged into the modern Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan.
Judging by a number of sources, the Great Indian Way arose much earlier The Great Silk Road, and it was he who became the first transcontinental route in the history of civilization that connected the east and west - the Mediterranean, the South Caucasus, Central Asia, India and China.
Like many great trade highways of antiquity, the Great Indian Way was formed gradually, in separate parts, in the development of which a significant role was played by representatives of various ethnic groups of Hindustan, Bactrians and Khorezmians, the peoples of the South Caucasus - Albanians, Iberians and Kolkhis. But the unification of all these parts into a single trade route occurred, apparently, thanks to the Indians and the Hellenes. From the west, the Greeks gradually moved east, beginning with the era of the Argonauts and their legendary campaign in the "golden Colchis", the routes of Jason to the Caspian, the campaigns of the warriors of Alexander the Great, who mastered the river and land roads from Central Asia to India, and the sailing of Patroclus sent by Seleucus I for the exploration of the Caspian Sea.
From the east already at the end of the III - II millennium BC. e. Dravidian pioneers of the great Harappian civilization of the Indus Valley emerged into the valley of Oaks, having founded a trading station here, and then gradually began to move westward to the Caspian Sea, leaving a notable mark in the civilizations of Bactria and Margiana in subsequent centuries.

97
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 05:23:18 AM »
Asian ostrich

The Asian or Asiatic ostrich (Struthio asiaticus), is an extinct species of ostrich that ranged from Morocco, the Middle East to China and Mongolia. Fossils date from the upper Pliocene to the early Holocene (3.6 MYA - c.6000 BC or BCE.

Asian ostriches were widespread around Europe and Asia. They also used to live in northern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and southern Siberia. In China, it is known that Asiatic ostriches became extinct at the end or shortly after the end of the last Ice Age.

Asian ostrich egg shells


Asian ostrich skeleton
98
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 05:18:55 AM »
Aepycamelus

Drawings from Mongolia



Aepycamelus is an extinct genus of camelid, synonym Alticamelus, which lived during the Miocene 20.6–4.9 million years ago, existing for about 15.7 million years. Its name is derived from the Homeric Greek αἰπύς, "high and steep" and κάμηλος – "camel"; thus, "high camel"; alticamelus in Latin.

Aepycamelus walked on its toes only. Unlike earlier species of camelids, they possessed cushioned pads like those of modern camels

Morphology

Aepycamelus was a prairie dweller of North America (Colorado, etc.). It was a highly specialized animal. Its head was relatively small compared with the rest of its body, its neck was long, as a result of giraffe-like lengthening of the cervical vertebrae, and its legs were long and stilt-like, with the elbow and knee joints on the same level. The top of its head would have been about 3 m (9.8 ft) above the ground.

Its strange body structure gives information on its mode of life and habits. Aepycamelus obviously inhabited dry grasslands with groups of trees. It is presumed to have moved about singly or in small groups, like today's giraffes, and like them, browsed high up in the trees. In this respect, it had no competitors. It survived a relatively long time, through most of the Miocene epoch, and died out prior to the start of the Pliocene, possibly due to climatic changes.

Fossil distribution
Its fossils are distributed widely, from Montana to Florida to California.




99
Oriental Empires Discussion / Ancient China
« Last post by Nyukus on October 25, 2017, 04:58:37 AM »
Animals of Аncient China and Central Asia

Elephants in ancient China
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The existence of elephants in ancient China is attested both by archaeological evidence and by depictions in Chinese artwork. Long thought to belong to an extinct subspecies of Asian elephants, named Elephas maximus rubridens, they lived in Central and Southern China before the 14th century BC. They once occurred as far north as Anyang, Henan in northern China.

In December 2012, a study by a team of scientists from China reported that the elephant living in China in ancient times (Shang and Zhou dynasties) could not have been a subspecies of the Asian elephant, as previously thought, but probably belonged to the Palaeoloxodon genus. P. namadicus were distributed among Asia, but it is unclear if the mysterious elephants of northern China were remnants of P. namadicus or a unique species of their own. This conclusion was reached after studying remains of Chinese elephant molars and tusks from the Holocene epoch, as well as examining ritual bronzes from the Shang and Zhou dynasties, which all depicted elephants with two 'fingers' on the tip of their trunk (whereas the Indian elephant only has one 'finger'). Fossil elephant experts Victoria Herridge and Adrian Lister disagree with the assignment, stating that the claimed diagnostic dental features are actually contrast artifacts, created due to the low resolution of the figures in the scientific paper, and are not evident in better quality photographs.

Elephants still survived in the southwestern provinces of China after the extinction of the Chinese elephant, but they are of a different subspecies, the Indian elephant, Elephas maximus indicus. A native population of these remains in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province.


A replica of a Shang dynasty bronze pitcher depicting an elephant as a statue in the North Park Blocks of Portland, Oregon



Elephants live in a hot belt. But in antiquity they met in China on the banks of the Yellow River. In "Spring and Autumn Lew" it is said: "The Shan people tamed fierce wild elephants. When there was a threat from the eastern kingdom, Chou-gun sent an army there and drove the enemy south to the Yangtze itself "

100
Oriental Empires Discussion / Re: How to proper defend behind rivers ?
« Last post by BabyMotoya on October 24, 2017, 08:53:36 AM »
 defend orders. If the enemy attack across the river, then they
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